Geert Hofstede (1998) pointed out that culture is Masculinity/femininity. This structure is somewhat misunderstood Dimensions are often mistaken for the concept of individualism. Such as Proposed by Hofstede, a more masculine culture summarizes men as Confidence and material success, represented by women And caring. On the other hand, societies that favor women tend to Both men and women have and need modesty and tenderness.
Hofstede and Vunderink (1994) directly compared the United States In the field of masculinity/femininity. The men American students are more likely to agree with men’s responses Regarding their future career; for example, to rate income, welfare, And progress is more important than students from the Netherlands. In contrast, students from the Netherlands are more likely to Recognize projects that involve contributions to their company, Use their skills, and help others. So people from America The states seem to have higher cultural values than male-centered Women from the Netherlands tend to be a feminine spectrum.
The difference between male culture and female culture can be It can be clearly seen when observing the two educational environments (Hofstede, 1998). Most notably, the way male and female classrooms are different The explanation is successful. In female culture, the average score is for students The scope of the exam is considered the norm. It’s totally different From a male culture that thinks it is above average standard. In addition, high-level performance pressure and competition are particularly prominent in masculine schools and universities. But it’s not feminine. Based on this unique cultural dimension, Students who hold opposite values in this field may treat the learning and educational environment in different ways.
In addition to the male/female approach, the United States and The Netherlands is also different in other ways. Holland has Usually rated as one of the happiest places; in fact, in the past 20 years, nine out of ten adults are very happy (statistics Netherlands [CBS], 2017). Approximately 85% of adults declare They are satisfied with their lives and work. However, in the past ten years, the level of happiness of the American people has greatly decreased: between 31% and 35% (Sifferlin, 2017).
Only 47% to 59% of Americans are satisfied Has been living since 2001 (McCarthy, 2019), and 49% of people are satisfied with their current job (Pew Research Center, 2016). In addition, the Netherlands ranks first in terms of work-life balance, while the United States ranks close to the lowest in a comparison of 38 countries/regions (Hull, 2018). To some extent, this may be due to the fact that the average weekly working hours in the Netherlands is 30 hours a week, while the average working hours in the United States is 40 hours a week (Messenger & Ray, 2013).
In addition, half of the nearly 20,000 Americans surveyed felt lonely Sometimes or always (Cigna, 2018). this might be This is related to the lower work-life balance rate in the United States. Due to these differences in satisfaction and work-life balance, the Dutch are expected to have more mindfulness Traits and skills.
Facilitating the development of basic psychological needs is an imperative within any culture for intrinsic motivation to emerge. Our study aims to determine the levels of mindfulness in American and Dutch cultures and to analyze how mindfulness translates into the development of basic psychological needs within each culture. Examining these constructs between two cultures that are reasonably similar provides a solid path through which connections, specifically between mindfulness and basic psychological needs, as well as perceived support, can be identified and theorized.
Since mindfulness studies were conducted in both cultures, the United States and the Netherlands were also selected for comparison. At this point, there is no research investigating the interaction between these structures and the two countries. Since there is a connection between the development of basic psychological needs and perceived social support, this research also attempts to identify the connection between mindfulness and culturally perceived social support as an additional exploratory measure. We assume that American and Dutch people have different mindfulness levels. Due to the perception of life satisfaction in each culture, Dutch students have higher mindfulness skills than American students (Si ﬀ erlin, 2017; Statistics Netherlands [CBS], 2017) .
In addition, we foresee that due to the large number of Americans surveyed, the Dutch will have greater perceived social support (Cigna, 2018). Our second hypothesis is that in both cultures, the level of mindfulness of students will be proportional to the realization of all three basic psychological needs. In addition, as our third hypothesis, we expect that the university alliance will slow down the relationship between the level of mindfulness of students and the satisfaction of their basic psychological needs.
In the final hypothesis, because American culture is more masculine than Dutch culture, we predict that the relationship between mindfulness and social support from various cultures will change.