KUFAMBA: ZVINOKONZESA, ZVINOGONESA NEMAITIRO

Kazhinji kacho, zvinhu zvakasanganiswa zvinokonzeresa vanhu mumugwagwa kuenda kuutapwa: hurombo, makakatanwa, magariro uye matambudziko ezvematongerwo enyika, matambudziko ezvakatipoteredza,…

Zvakaoma kwazvo kuziva kuti chii chaive chikonzero chikuru chesarudzo yekusiya. Zvakare, zvikonzero zvekutama zvinowanzopindirana: hurombo hunokonzerwa nemakakatanwa nematambudziko ezvematongerwo enyika neenzanga…

Vamwe vari kuenda nezvikonzero zvemari. Ivo vari kutsvaga zvirinani zvemagariro nezvehupfumi tarisiro uye kuyedza kunoshanda kunze kwenyika, kana ivo vanosangana nehurombo hwakanyanya munyika mavo uye havaone imwe sarudzo kunze kwekusiya. Vamwe vanoshanda zviri pamutemo, nepo vamwe vasina mvumo yekushanda uye vari kushanda muhupfumi husina kurongwa.

Vanotama havangosiire ivo chete, asiwo mhuri yavo kana nharaunda yavo: vanotumira mari kumhuri dzavo, nokudaro vachivandudza mamiriro ehupenyu enharaunda yavo. Hurumende dzenyika dzakatangira vanhu vanoenda kune dzimwe nyika vanofarirawo mari idzi, idzo dzinoita basa rakakosha muhupfumi hwadzo. MuMali, semuenzaniso, maererano neongororo yeWorld Bank, mari yakatumirwa nevaMalians kuFrance yakabatsira pakuvaka 60% yezvivakwa.

Vamwe vanotama vari kuenda nekuda kwemamiriro ezvematongerwo enyika. Ivo vanotiza kubva kuhondo, dzinza, kupokana kwechitendero, kutyorwa kwekodzero dzevanhu, uye zvimwe zvakadaro. Vamwe vanoonekwa nekukurumidza sevapoteri, kazhinji munyika dzakavakidzana. Vamwe vanova vanotsvaga hupoteri. Ivo havabvumidzwe nguva dzose kushanda, asi vazhinji vanoshanda zvisiri pamutemo.

Vamwezve ndivo vanobatwa nekutengeswa uye vanomanikidzwa kutama vasina hazvo kusarudza. Mhindu kubva mukutengesa vanhu inofungidzirwa pamabhiriyoni gumi emadhora pagore.

Vamwe havatamire vachifara: ava vanhu vanobva patariro yehupenyu huri nani, kuti vatize kunetsana, njodzi dzinongoitika dzoga kana kutambudzwa. Kune vanhu ava, kutama kunorwadza nekuti zvinomiririra kudzurwa kubva munyika yavo, mutauro wavo, hama dzavo.

Kune vamwe, kutama kunoitwa kunze kwechido chekutsvaga nyika. Izvi zvinonyanya kuitika kune vadzidzi vanoenda kunochinjana chikoro kune imwe nyika, uye vashanyi venguva pfupi kana yakareba. Uku kufambiswa kwekutsvaga kana kwekudzidzira kunokurudzirwa uye kunokosheswa nekuti kunotendera kuwanikwa kweimwe tsika uye kuzvipfumisa kwega.

Asi iko kutama kunongowanikwa kune vashoma vanhu vane rombo rakanaka, kuchamhembe senge kumaodzanyemba, vane nzira dzemari nehutongi kuti vawane rusununguko urwu, zvakadaro rwakamisikidzwa muUniversal Declaration of Human Rights. murume (DUDH) muchinyorwa chayo 13.

VERENGA ZVIMWE: RUDZIKO RENYIKA DZINOTORA VANHU VANHU VANHU

Migumisiro yekutama
MuCentral Africa, kuwanda kwevatauri veBantu kwakakanganisa nharaunda. Kuunzwa kwezvirimwa zvitsva uye nehunyanzvi hwekurima kwakachinja mamiriro echisikigo. Kurera mombe kwakasiyawo mhuka dzemusango. Zvekurima zvakagadzirisa kugona kwevatauri veBantu kubereka uye kuwedzera. Nekudaro, kukanganisa kwezvekurima pane zvakatipoteredza kunozivikanwa zvakare kupfuura kuvhima nekuunganidza.

Mhuka nezvinomera izvo vanhu vanopararira nekukura muPacific yose zvinotendera kuti zvirarame. Nekudaro, izvi zviito zvakakanganisawo nharaunda yechitsuwa. Kuunzwa kwemhuka dzekunze uye zvirimwa uye zviitiko zvevanhu zvakachinja magariro ezvitsuwa zvavanosarudza kugara pairi.

Kufambisa maitiro uye kutama chirwere.

nekuti Vanhu vanoratidza kuburikidza neKuzviita, kunyanya kuburikidza nehunhu hunhu (asi husiri hwega), kusarudzwa kwechisikigo kuchaita basa reImmigration. Pamatanho akasiyana ehurongwa, hunhu Ndicho chinonyanya kunetsa munhu. Maitiro anoonekwawo, kunyangwe muvanhu vemusango vane mwero wepamusoro wekutama Mumhepo, husiku, pamusoro kana mugungwa, dambudziko rakakura. Muzvipembenene, kutsvagisa murabhoritari kunoshandisa Wind tunnel (Hardie naPowell 2002) kana nhandare yendege kana Balance (Cooter 1983, Han naGatehouse 1993) zvinokwanisika uye zvinobvumidza kuyedza nekucherechedza.

Shiri izvozvi dzinogona zvakare kudzidza mumhepo tunnel (Pennycuick et al., 1997). Zvichibva pakutsvagisa kwekuvhuvhuta Kwayedza neaphis (Aphis fabae), iye anoongorora zviitiko zvemota uye mhinduro kune zviwanikwa panguva yeRabhoritari yekukwira Room, JS Kennedy (JS Kennedy) akaronga Hunhu hwakakosha hwekupinda munyika (Kennedy (Kennedy) 1966 naDingle 1996) uye nekutsanangura zvinotevera: Kugara uye kupomhodza mhedzisiro yekuekisesaiza Iyo yemhuka mota mota kana chiitiko kugona kwebhodhi mota. Zvinoenderana nekanguva Kudzivisa chiteshi kuti chirambe chichipindura, asi kusimudzira mhinduro yayo Ultimate inhibition uye kudzoka ”(Kennedy 1985, peji 8).

Izwi rekuti “mota” rinoreva kutakurwa nemhepo kana mumvura dzinofamba. Sezvakaita zvipembenene zvakawanda, mafambiro a A. fabae anowanzoitwa nemhepo, asi Kennedy akasimbirira kuti zvisinei, hove dzaifanira kubhururuka kuti dzipinde murukova rwemhepo uye dzimire kumusoro. Mhinduro kuzvinzvimbo zvichipfupikisa zvakawanikwa naKennedy zvekuyedza yaive yekuti pakutanga uye panguva yekufamba kwekutama mumatanho ekutanga, hove dzaisazoteerera cue yezvakatipoteredza (jani diki rebhinzi) ivo vaiwanzo pindura kugadzirisa nekutanga kupa chikafu, asi izvo zvinotora imwe nguva kubhururuka, ivo vaizotanga kuitirana nayo zvakare (kunyangwe yakanyanyisa kushanda). Ichi chirevo chakakwenenzverwa chekucherechedza kwakawanda kunoitwa kwetax dzakasiyana kubva kumapurugufuru kuenda kune vasina ungiri vemuAfrica, kufamba kwekutama uku hakuna kugadzikana (Dingle 1996).

Kennedy akasimbisa izvi nekuti kumiswa kwenzvimbo dzekuchengetedza chiteshi ndekwenguva, pamwe nekudzokorodza nekudzima. Nenzira iyi, mutamhi anogona kuchinja pakati pekutama nekutsvaga chikafu munzira, semumashiri anozivikanwa anomira. Kuenderera mberi nekusimbisa maitiro ekusiyanisa pakati pemhando mbiri dzekuita muKennedy’s (1985) tsananguro yekutsvaga se “kudzokorodza chiitiko chemota chinokanganisika zviri nyore nekusangana nechuma cheimwe mhando. “

Sezvatakataridza, hunhu hwekufamba-famba pachahwo hunovimba nematanho epasi ekugadzirisa, kunyanya kwepanyama uye kugadziriswa. Morphology (esskesson naHedenström 2007, Ramenofsky Uye Wingfield 2007) dzimwe nguva inokonzeresa kusawirirana Mune zvakafanana immigration uye Asiri-evatorwa marudzi. Kuwedzera pakupindura kukurudzira kunoitwa kuti utange uye kumisa kurovedza muviri, migration syndrome inosanganisira zvekare nzira dzinotangisa nekudzivirira kurovedza muviri. Aya maitiro uye anodiwa metabolism uye shanduko yemahormone Gadzirira rwendo rwekupinda munyika (Dingle 2006). Idzi idzo Tsika dzakabatanidzwa muhupenyu hwehupenyu hwehupenyu; semuenzaniso, kwete chete kudya kunodziviswa, asi kumera uye kubereka zvinodzivirirwa (Kennedy 1985, Ramenofsky naWingfield 2007).

Morphological maficha anowedzera simba uye Kubudirira, senge yakawedzera mapapiro kureba kweshiri dzinofamba. Iyo yakagadziridzwa kusimudzira yezvipembenene nehove inoonekwawo sechikamu chechirwere (Dingle 2006, esskessonand Hedenström 2007). Chinhu chinonakidza is immigration syndrome Yakave yakagadziriswa kakawanda mumataxa mazhinji. Phylogenetic Research inokundikana kuburitsa zvakadzika madzitateguru maitiro (Piersma et al. 2005); pachinzvimbo, iyo syndrome inoita kunge iri nekuda kweKuda kushandira dzimwe nharaunda kubva pane zviripo maficha, Muenzaniso muenzaniso uri kubhururuka.

Hwaro hwekutama kwehurwere ndeyemageneti akaomarara (Mufananidzo 1) ine magene nemajini (van Noordwijk et al., 2006; Pulido, 2007; Roff naFairbairn, 2007). Iwe unogona zvakare kuyedza munzira dzinotevera Kusarudzika kwekusarudzika uye muyedzo wekusanganiswa, unonyanya kushandiswa kuzvipembenene (Han nyika) Uye Gatehouse, 1993, Dingle, 2001) Black Hat Warbler (Sylvia atricapilla; Pulido naBerthold 2003). Kuedza kwakadai kunoratidza kuwirirana Pakati pezvinhu zvine chekuita nekutama uye pakati peKubereka, zvese zviri zviviri zvinoratidza hunhu hwekugadzirisa. Zvimwe zvinotarisirwa hunhu hwechirwere, senge kutengeserana-offs Uye izvi zvaireva zvigadziriso zvishoma, zvinokurukurwa naSih nevamwe vake (2004), Pulido (2007) naRoff And Fairbairn (2007).

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