KUZVISARUDZA-KUSARUDZA, KUTSVAGA UYE KUSANGANISIRA VANOTAMIRA

Nyanzvi dzakaratidza zviviri zvakakura zvakabatana zvine chekuita nezvehupfumi hwevatorwa, iyo nzira yekuzvisarudzira yevatorwa vanobva munyika yavakaberekerwa (Chiswick, 1978; Borjas, 1985), uye mamiriro ekugamuchirwa kwenyika inogarwa (Borjas, 1990; Portes uye Rumbaut). (iro gore 1990). Kunzwisisa mupiro wekubatana wezvinhu zviviri izvi mukubatanidzwa kwehupfumi hwevatorwa kwakakosha mukuita sarudzo (Borjas, 1990; Kadhi, 2005).

Iyo yekuzvisarudzira-maitiro evapoteri ndeimwe yematanho makuru ekugadzirisa kwavo kwehupfumi. Pfungwa ye “kuzvisarudzira” yakakurudzirwa naRoy (1951) mune mamiriro esarudzo yebasa, asi kubvira ipapo yakashandiswa kune akawanda marudzi esarudzo zvine musoro. Borjas (1987) akaunza iyi poindi mukudzidza kwesarudzo yekuti uye vangangotama vatamire munyika yekwavanobva. Iye nedzimwe nyanzvi vanodavira kuti vatorwa havasi muenzaniso wakasarudzika wakatorwa kubva kuvagari venyika yavakaberekerwa, asi iboka rinoshanda rakazvisarudzira kubva kuvanhu vane njodzi.

Kuenda kune dzimwe nyika kunounza njodzi nemutengo izvo vanoenda vanosarudza kutakura kusimudzira mamiriro ehupfumi enzvimbo yekuenda (Chiswick, 1979; Borjas, 1987; Chiswick naMiller, 2007). Dzinotsanangurwa nhamba dzinoratidza kuti vanoenda kune dzimwe nyika vanowanzo shingairira-kuzvisarudzira kubva kune vanhu vari panjodzi, ndiko kuti, ivo vakadzidza kupfuura vamwe vavo vasiri vekune dzimwe nyika munyika yavo yekubva (Docquier naMarfouk (2006)).

Chirevo chekugamuchira uye kuumbwa
Chechipiri chikuru chinogadzirisa kusimudzira kweupfumi kwevatorwa ndeye hunhu hwenyika inotambira, kusanganisira yekushambadzira uye nemabatiro ehurongwa uye mamiriro emusika. Zviripachena, mamiriro ekugashira munyika inotambira haingokanganisa chete kufungidzirwa kwevatorwa, asi zvakare inokanganisa kupatsanurwa kwekupinda kwavo munyika idzi. Idzi nyika mbiri dzekuenda muchidzidzo ichi dzine marongero akasiyana ekuti vapinde munyika vane hupfumi hwani. Munguva yekudzidza (1990-2000), United States yakatora mitemo yakaoma pamusoro pekupinda munyika. Kubva 1965, yanga ichinyanya kuvakwa pakusangana kwemhuri uye padiki padiki hunyanzvi hwehunyanzvi (Duleep neRegets, 2014).

Parizvino, pasi pechikamu che “rubatsiro rwemhuri”, kanokwana katatu nhamba yevanopinda vanobvumirwa se “basa-rakavakirwa” sarudzo system (OECD, 2016). Chekupedzisira, pane mamwe marongero emitemo anotsanangura muganho wepamusoro wekupinda munyika yekubva, zvinoreva kuti vatorwa zvachose kubva kune imwe nyika havagone kuenda kuUnited States mukati megore remari rinodarika 7 muzana yehuwandu hwevanhu.

United States yagara iri nzvimbo inozivikanwa kwazvo kune vanobva kuGerman. Muna 2000, pakanga paine vangangoita mamirioni 1,1 vakaberekerwa kuGerman vanoenda kuUnited States, vachiverengera chikamu chimwe muzvitatu chevatorwa vese kuGerman panguva imwechete (OECD, 2015). Vanopfuura makumi mapfumbamwe muzana vavo vane chikamu chepamusoro cheChirungu. Pakazosvika 2013, nekuda kwekufunga kwemhuri (kunyanya sehama dzepedyo dzevagari vemuAmerica), vangangoita makumi matanhatu kubva muzana evamiriri vekuAmerican vanobva kuEurope vakabva vava vagari vepamutemo vemuUnited States, uye vamwe makumi maviri neshanu muzana vaive pamusoro pekufunga nezvebasa Qinghou naBatalova, 2015) .

Munguva yekuferefeta, Sweden yaive nemitemo mishoma kune vekuGerman vanoenda kune dzimwe nyika. Munguva ye1990-1994 nguva, kuenda kuGerman kwaive kuchirambidzwa kune vanhu vaive nemikana yebasa kana vaive nehukama nevanhu vaigara muSweden. Zvisinei, nekutonga kweSweden kuEuropean Union muna 1995, kutamira kuGermany kuSweden hakuchina kuganhurirwa.

Pakati pa1990 na2000, vangangoita mazana mana nemazana matatu vakapinda muSweden, vazhinji vacho (vangangoita makumi masere muzana) vakapinda muSweden mushure megore ra1994. Isu takaedza musiyano (2000) mumatanho ekuwedzera kwemari pakati pemapoka maviri eGerman akapinda muSweden (1990-1994. uye 1995-1995), uye havana kuwana humbowo hwemusiyano uyu. Naizvozvo, isu tinopatsanura vatorwa vekuGerman vakasvika kuGerman kubva 1990 kusvika 2000 muchikamu chimwe chete.

Yechipiri inomiririra nyika chinhu icho chinokanganisa kugadziriswa kwevatorwa ndiyo mutemo wezvekugara wenzvimbo. Sekureva kwaEspen-Andersen, United States ine yemahara yehurongwa hwehurongwa hwakavakirwa pane zvakazvimirira zvehurongwa hwehurombo, kunyanya inotsigirwa nevashandi Mukupesana, Sweden ine social democracy democracy system umo yakawanda yemari inowanikwa inonyanya kubhadharwa kuburikidza nemitero uye ichipa masevhisi kuvanhu vese (Esping-Andersen, 1990). Kunyangwe hazvo humwe hutano hwemagariro hwakadzikiswa panguva yedambudziko rehupfumi muma1990, mutemo weSweden wekubatsira hauna kuita shanduko huru kusvika mushure megore ra2006, rinova gore rekupedzisira rekuferefeta kwedu.

Chekupedzisira, mashandiro emusika wevashandi ari kuenda anokanganisa mamiriro ehupfumi evatorwa nenzira dzakawanda (Borjas, 1990; Portes neRumbaut, 1990; Posner na Weyl, 2018).

  • Kutanga, saizi yevashandi vepamusoro-hunyanzvi uye vashoma vane hunyanzvi hunokanganisa kudiwa kwevanopinda munyika padanho rega rega rehunyanzvi.
  • Chechipiri, iyo yakakwira dziviriro yemabasa inopihwa nemutemo nemubatanidzwa wevashandi kunogona kudzikisira kuda kwevashandirwi kukwirisa vashandi vanotama.
  • Chechitatu, kutenderera kwehupfumi kune chakakomba pamamiriro ehupfumi evatorwa, nekuti kuwana mikana yebasa panguva yekuderera kwezvinhu kwakanyanya kunetsa (Kogan, 2007).

Idzi nyika mbiri dzinofananidzwa dzine misiyano yakakura munzira iyo misika yavo yevashandi inoshanda. Kunyangwe iyo United States ichizivikanwa nemusika unoshanduka wevashandi uye kudzoka kwakakwirira pamatanho epamusoro emitero yemari (kunyanya hupfumi hwevanhu), uye nekudaro kusaenzana kwemari yakawanda (yakakwira kupfuura Germany), kusaenzana kwemari muSweden kwakadzikira (Kuderera kupfuura Germany). MuGerman), uye chikamu chepamusoro chemubatanidzwa chekutora chikamu mukutora mari. Uye zvakare, Sweden ine vashandi vane hunyanzvi hwakaderera pane United States. MuSweden, chikamu chevagari vemo vane makore 25-64 vane dhigirii mugore ra2000 chaive che15% (Statistics Sweden, 2009), nepo chikamu muUnited States chaive 24.5% (Bauman naGraf, 2003).

Uye zvakare, Sweden yakasangana nehupfumi hwakanyanya uye huwandu hwekushaikwa kwemabasa muma1990. Iyi ndiyo makore gumi ekutsvaga. Yakatanga kukwira muna 1992. Kushaikwa kwemabasa muSweden kwakadzikama panosvika 9-10% kubva muna1993 kusvika 1998, ndokutanga kudzikira, ndokudonha kusvika pa5.5% muna2000. Mukupesana, mwero weurovha muUnited States wakasvika pakakwirira. ye7.5% muna 1992, yakaramba ichiderera, ichisvika 5.6% muna 1995 uye 4% muna 2000 (World Bank, 2017). Naizvozvo, zvakaoma kune vanobva kune dzimwe nyika vakasungwa kuSweden kuti vabatanidzwe zvizere imomo.

Munguva yekudzidza, zvakakoshawo kuti utarise mubairo wepakati muSweden neUnited States uchienzaniswa neGerman. Iwo 2000 avhareji mibairo muSweden, United States, uye Germany (pamitengo yenguva dzose ya2015, yakaverengerwa muna2015 US madhora ekutenga masimba parity) yaive 32,400; 51,300; uye makumi mana nemazana manomwe. Muna 2005, idzi nhamba dzaive zviuru makumi matatu nezvishanu. 53,800; uye 41,100 (OECD Statistics, 2017). Mune mamwe mazwi, ichienzaniswa neSweden, United States inokwezva kune veGerman vane hunyanzvi. Zvichienzaniswa neGerman, maGerman avo vanoenda kuUnited States (1.26-1.31) vane huwandu huri nani hwekutenga simba pakati peUnited States neGerman (PPP ratios pakati peSweden neGerman iri 0.80-0.85).

Zviripachena, iro rekutenga simba parity yeavhareji mibairo mune idzi nhatu nyika chiyero chakaomarara chemamiriro ehupfumi eimwe nyika. Nekudaro, inogona kushanda sechiratidzo chakafara chenyika nhatu dzinobatanidzwa.

Kufanana kwehupfumi hwevatorwa

Vadzidzi vekune dzimwe nyika vanoenda kune dzimwe nyika vanoratidza kuti vanobva kune dzimwe nyika (zvisinei nezinga ravo chairo revanhu) vachatambura zvakanyanya munzanga neupfumi mumusika wevashandi wenzanga yavo pavanosvika (semuenzaniso, DeVoretz, 2006). Vapoteri panguva iyoyo vaive vasingazive nemusika mutsva wevashandi. Ivo vane mashoma mukana kune ruzivo uye hukama hwehukama; havanyatsogona mutauro; hunyanzvi hwavo hwehunyanzvi haugone kuendeswa kuhurongwa hutsva hwehupfumi, uye dzimwe nguva vanototarisana nerusarura. Nekuda kweizvozvo, vanoenda kune dzimwe nyika (kunyangwe vane hunyanzvi hwepamusoro) vari parumananzombe pavanosvika vachienzaniswa nevanozvarwa munharaunda vane hunhu hwakafanana (Eckstein naWeiss, 2002; Chiswick naMiller, 2009).

Nekudaro, nekufamba kwenguva, vazhinji vanobva kune dzimwe nyika vakaona basa repamusoro uye kusimuka kwehupfumi, nekudaro vachivandudza yavo pozha musika. Chokwadi, mushure menguva yakati munzanga yevagari, zvakaonekwa kuti vatorwa vaigara vachidzikisa gwanza rekutanga remari pamwe nevakazvarwa vanozvarwa, kunyanya pakati pevaya vane huwandu hwakakura hwevanhu (Chiswick, 1978, 1979; Borjas) , 1990, 1994; LaLonde neTopel, 1990; Borjas naTienda, 1993; Lofstrom, 2000).

Kunyangwe hazvo hupfumi hwevanhu hune simba rakakura mukuumba ramangwana rehupfumi revatorwa, nzvimbo yekugashira inowanikwa munyika dzakati inoita basa rekugadzirisa zvinoitika pakudzidziswa uye hunyanzvi (uye mamwe mabasa) pakuiswa kwevane hunyanzvi vanobva kune dzimwe nyika mumusika wevashandi. kushanda. Chiitiko chenyika dzinoverengeka chinoratidza zvakare kuti hupfumi hwakagadziriswa hwevane hunyanzvi vanoenda kune dzimwe nyika haungatorerwe, zvichienderana nemitemo yenyika, mitemo yenyika, mikana yezvehupfumi mumusika wevashandi, musika wevashandi unoshandiswa nevashandi vekunze, uye hutano masangano (Lewin-Epstein et al., 2003; Cohen naHaberfeld, 2007; Chiswick naMiller, 2009; Cohen, Haberfeld naKogan, 2011).

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