Generally speaking, learning theory originates from the way theorists explain human nature and the way people learn.
Among the learning theories proposed in the second half of the 20th century, I would like to emphasize the theory of multiple intelligences proposed by Howard Gardner. Initially, MI was proposed as a theory of human intelligence, that is, as a cognitive model. Because it describes cognitive ability with a set of skills, talents and even intellectual abilities, it has attracted the attention of educators all over the world. Known as “intelligence”. Gardner’s intelligence is not completely independent, it is relatively autonomous. It seems that the importance of MI for educators is that they recognize that every child has a different set of skills or a set of intelligences.
In fact, Gardner’s learning theory is another view of traditional intelligence theory (Binet and Simon’s IQ). This is a theory of multiple intelligences. According to Gardner, the MI model partially uses the knowledge that was not yet available in the Binet and Simon (1908) era: cognitive science (thinking research) and neuroscience (brain research). In MI, intelligence is understood as multiple skills. These categories (or intelligence) represent elements that can be found in all cultures, namely: music, words, logic, painting, social interaction, physical expression, internal reflection, and appreciation of nature. In fact, MI theory has been well applied in various educational environments, thus proving how cultural background affects educational practice.
In addition, MI represents eight ways of learning content. Therefore, the instant messaging theory does not only use language and logic as a vehicle for learning. MI theory provides a background in which educators can solve any skill, topic, field, or teaching goal, and develop it through at least eight teaching methods. MI is not only used in classrooms, but also as a conceptual model in science parks. It turns out that MI is a way to ensure that learning happens and is fun.
Initially, a set of intelligence proposed by Gardner showed seven basic intelligence. In later work, the author added the eighth type of intelligence (naturalist), which made it possible to discuss the possibility of adopting the ninth type of intelligence (spirituality). To get this model, Gardner reported that he studied abroad and unrelated sets of sources: genius studies, gifted individuals, patients with brain damage, idiot scholars, normal children, normal adults, different studies Experts in the field, and individuals from different cultural backgrounds.
The eight types of intelligence proposed by Gardner are defined as having the following abilities: 1) Use language in a competent (language) way; 2) Perform logical reasoning in mathematics and science (logical mathematics); 3) Record the details of what you see, And visualize and manipulate objects in (spatial) thinking; 4) Understand, create and appreciate music and musical concepts (musical); 5) Use one’s body proficiently (physical kinesthesia); 6) Recognize others (interpersonal communication) ) Subtle aspects of behavior; 7) Understanding of oneself (interpersonal relationship); 8) Recognizing natural patterns and differences (naturalism).
As Gardner believes, intelligence is a human ability associated with specific world content (for example, musical sounds or spatial patterns). Gardner also pointed out that these different intellectual powers or abilities each have their own historical development. Therefore, they are valued differently by different cultures in the world.
Finally, according to Gardner, certain fields or skills, such as the logical mathematics field or skills studied in depth by J. Piaget, are universal. In short, Piaget studies the thinking of children to understand the uniqueness and universality of intelligence. However, there are other areas that are limited to certain cultures. For example, in some cultures, the ability to read or make maps is important, while in other cultures, its value is minimal or even unknown.